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Rev. Notes > IGCSE > Light
 
 
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Nature of light

Important features of light

Reflection of light

Use of mirror (Periscope)

Refraction of light

Refractive index

Critical angle

Total internal reflection

Use of prism (Periscope)
Fiber-optics

Convex lens

Behavior of standard rays after passing through convex lens

Image formed by convex lens

Nature and position of image produced by convex lens

Principle of camera

Dispersion of light

Newton's experiment for dispersion of light

Improvement in Newton's experiment for dispersion of light

Recombination of colors

Rainbow

Reflection through plane mirror

Image through plane mirror

Test Yourself

 

Fiber-optics

Total internal reflection is used in fiber optic cables. A fiber optic cable is made of a bundle of very thin glass fibers. The light continues along the fiber by being constantly internally reflected.

Telephone and T.V. communications systems are increasingly relying on fibre optics istead of the more traditional copper cables. fibre optic cables do not use electricity and the signals are carried by infrared rays. The signals are very clear as they do not suffer from electrical interference. Other advantages are that they are cheaper than the copper cables and can carry thousands of different signals down the same fibre at the same time.

Bundles of several thousands opticle fibres are use in medical endoscope for internal examination of the body. The bundle will carry an image from one end of the bundle to the other, each fibre carrying one tiny part (one pixel) of the image.

 
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